Works often begin by discussing the invention of packet switching, describe the design and development of the ARPANET, and then examine how this network evolved into the Internet. Although the ARPANET was a seminal computer network, these accounts usually only briefly consider the many other diverse networks that existed. While focusing on these subjects is important and therefore justified, it can leave the reader with the impression that the world of networking started with the ARPANET and ended with the Internet. This thesis is an attempt to help correct this misconception. Static routing involves manually adding IP routes to the system’s routing table, and this is usually done by manipulating the routing table with the route command.
After an introduction in Chapter 1, the thesis analyses several networks. In Chapters 2 and 3, the focus is on academic networks, especially JANET and SuperJANET. Attention moves to videotex networks in Chapter 4, specifically Prestel, and in Chapter 5, the dissertation examines electronic mail networks such as Telecom Gold and crossgrid.org Cable & Wireless Easylink. Chapter 6 considers online services, including CompuServe, American Online, and the Microsoft Network, and the thesis ends with a conclusion in Chapter 7. All of the networks discussed used protocols that were incompatible with each other which limited the utility of the networks for their users.
4 Packet Switching
TCP is the most widely used of the two, and is also the most reliable. Using TCP, packets are addressed and tracked through the network to make sure that they arrive safely at their destination. Any packets that don’t arrive where they are supposed to be are resent by the sender.
- But for a question that fits in a single datagram, we don’t need all the complexity of TCP to do this.
- For this reason, there are provisions to split datagrams up into pieces.
- Another alternative protocol is ICMP (“Internet control message protocol”).
- They can be sent and received regardless if the clients or server are using Windows, Macintosh or other types of platforms.
- The text incorporates solutions to these problems in discussion of principles, design approaches, and an up-to-date survey of developments in Internet-based protocols and algorithms.
Internet Protocol, the “IP” of TCP/IP is a connectionless protocol which deals only with network packet routing using the IP Datagram as the basic unit of networking information. The IP Datagram consists of a header followed by a message. The Transmission Control Protocol is the “TCP” of TCP/IP and enables network hosts to establish connections which may be used to exchange data streams. TCP also guarantees that the data between connections is delivered and that it arrives at one network host in the same order as sent from another network host. Since the same machines are involved, the Internet addresses are the same.
Major problems confronting network designers include the need to support multimedia and real-time traffic, to control congestion, and to provide different levels of quality of service to different applications. The text incorporates solutions to these problems in discussion of principles, design approaches, and an up-to-date survey of developments in Internet-based protocols and algorithms. A comprehensive website and supplementary materials help professors implement the text into their courses, and assist students and professionals in learning about network performance and design with hands-on projects. Because communications protocols are so important, a special organisation known as the ITU, or International Telecommunications Union, exists to lay down the exact detail in the standards that everyone will use. The two basic protocols used on the Internet are IP and TCP .